Release Information

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Agent

Aphalara itadori Shinji

Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Family: Psyllidae

Agent Name References:
- Shaw, R.H., S. Bryner, and R. Tanner. 2009. The life history and host range of of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: Potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union. Biological Control 49: 105-113.
- Shaw, R.H., R. Tanner, D. Djeddour, and G. Cortat. 2011. Classical biological control of Fallopia japonica in the United Kingdom - lessons for Europe. Weed Research 51(6): 552-558.
- Pratt, C.F., R.H. Shaw, R.A. Tanner, D.H. Djeddour, and J.G.M. Vos. 2013. Biological control of invasive non-native weeds: An opportunity not to be ignored. Entomologische Berichten 73(4): 144-154.

Agent Notes References:
- Kyushu line
- Grevstad, F.S., J.E. Andreas, R.S. Bourchier, R. Shaw, R.L. Winston, C.B. Randall, and R.C. Reardon. 2020. Biology and Biological Control of Knotweeds. FHTET-2017-03, 2nd Ed. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Weed

Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene

Family: Polygonaceae

Past Names/Synonyms: Reynoutria japonica Houtt.
Common Name: Japanese knotweed

Notes: While some taxonomists have recently proposed this species be shifted to the genus Reynoutria, the shift is still being debated. Until the situation is resolved, the authors of this catalogue follow the names utilized in the Flora of North America Vol. 5, which retains the genus Fallopia.

Origin: Asia

Weed Name References:
- Shaw, R.H., S. Bryner, and R. Tanner. 2009. The life history and host range of of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: Potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union. Biological Control 49: 105-113.
- Shaw, R.H., R. Tanner, D. Djeddour, and G. Cortat. 2011. Classical biological control of Fallopia japonica in the United Kingdom - lessons for Europe. Weed Research 51(6): 552-558.

Weed Synonym References:
- Schuster, T.M., K.L. Wilson, and K.A. Kron. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of Muehlenbeckia, Fallopia, and Reynoutria (Polygonaceae) investigated with chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. International Journal of Plant Sciences 172(8): 1053–1066.

Weed Common Name References:
- Shaw, R.H., S. Bryner, and R. Tanner. 2009. The life history and host range of of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: Potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union. Biological Control 49: 105-113.
- Shaw, R.H., R. Tanner, D. Djeddour, and G. Cortat. 2011. Classical biological control of Fallopia japonica in the United Kingdom - lessons for Europe. Weed Research 51(6): 552-558.

Weed Notes References:
- Grevstad, F.S., J.E. Andreas, R.S. Bourchier, R. Shaw, R.L. Winston, C.B. Randall, and R.C. Reardon. 2020. Biology and Biological Control of Knotweeds. FHTET-2017-03, 2nd Ed. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, Morgantown, West Virginia.
- Freeman, C.C. and J.L. Reveal. 2005. Polygonaceae Jussieu: Buckwheat family. In Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993+, Ed. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 5. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 216- 601.

Weed Origin References:
- Shaw, R.H., S. Bryner, and R. Tanner. 2009. The life history and host range of of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: Potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union. Biological Control 49: 105-113.

Release and Source Information

List: 1 - Exotic Organisms Intentionally Introduced

Source: Ex. Japan (southern)
Year: 2010
Region: Europe_Eurasia
Country: England
Subregion of Country:
Subregion specific:

Release History: 2010–2013, 2015–2019

Release Notes: Initially releases were restricted to 7 non-riparian sites due to stringent license conditions. Releases from 2015 onwards were made at riparian sites.

Source Information References:
- Shaw, R.H. 2013. Progress with weed biocontrol projects, CABI in the UK. June 2013. CABI United Kingdom. 3 pp.
- Shaw, R.H. 2013. (personal communication) CABI, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey, TW20 9TY, United Kingdom.
- Shaw, R.H., S. Bryner, and R. Tanner. 2009. The life history and host range of of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: Potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union. Biological Control 49: 105-113.
- Shaw, R.H., R. Tanner, D. Djeddour, and G. Cortat. 2011. Classical biological control of Fallopia japonica in the United Kingdom - lessons for Europe. Weed Research 51(6): 552-558.
- Pratt, C.F., R.H. Shaw, R.A. Tanner, D.H. Djeddour, and J.G.M. Vos. 2013. Biological control of invasive non-native weeds: An opportunity not to be ignored. Entomologische Berichten 73(4): 144-154.
- Grevstad, F.S., J.E. Andreas, R.S. Bourchier, R. Shaw, R.L. Winston, C.B. Randall, and R.C. Reardon. 2020. Biology and Biological Control of Knotweeds. FHTET-2017-03, 2nd Ed. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Original Host Species

Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene

Original Host Species References:
- Grevstad, F., R. Shaw, R. Bourchier, P. Sanguankeo, G. Cortat, and R.C. Reardon. 2013. Efficacy and host specificity compared between two populations of the psyllid Aphalara itadori, candidates for biological control of invasive knotweeds in North America. Biological Control 65: 53-62.

Establishment

Established: No
Established in Subregion of Country:
Established in Subregion specific:

Establishment References:
- Grevstad, F.S., J.E. Andreas, R.S. Bourchier, R. Shaw, R.L. Winston, C.B. Randall, and R.C. Reardon. 2020. Biology and Biological Control of Knotweeds. FHTET-2017-03, 2nd Ed. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, Morgantown, West Virginia.
- Fung, C., P. González-Moreno, C. Pratt, T.H. Olivera, R.S. Bourchier, and M. González-Suárez. 2020. Effect of humidity and temperature on the performance of three strains of Aphalara itadori, a biocontrol agent for Japanese knotweed. Biological Control 146 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2020.104269.

Abundance

Not established

Abundance References:
- Grevstad, F.S., J.E. Andreas, R.S. Bourchier, R. Shaw, R.L. Winston, C.B. Randall, and R.C. Reardon. 2020. Biology and Biological Control of Knotweeds. FHTET-2017-03, 2nd Ed. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, Morgantown, West Virginia.
- Fung, C., P. González-Moreno, C. Pratt, T.H. Olivera, R.S. Bourchier, and M. González-Suárez. 2020. Effect of humidity and temperature on the performance of three strains of Aphalara itadori, a biocontrol agent for Japanese knotweed. Biological Control 146 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2020.104269.

Agent Impact

Impact: Not established
Geographic Scale of impact: Not Established
Impact Notes: Though initial results encouraging, permanent establishment not confirmed despite several releaes made in multiple years and with fresh stock. Climate matching believed to be the reason for failure. New psyllids collected from more climatically suitable areas in Japan currently undergoing host specificity testing.

Impact References:
- Grevstad, F.S., J.E. Andreas, R.S. Bourchier, R. Shaw, R.L. Winston, C.B. Randall, and R.C. Reardon. 2020. Biology and Biological Control of Knotweeds. FHTET-2017-03, 2nd Ed. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, Morgantown, West Virginia.
- Fung, C., P. González-Moreno, C. Pratt, T.H. Olivera, R.S. Bourchier, and M. González-Suárez. 2020. Effect of humidity and temperature on the performance of three strains of Aphalara itadori, a biocontrol agent for Japanese knotweed. Biological Control 146 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2020.104269.

Limiting Factors

Climate

Limiting Factors References:
- Grevstad, F.S., J.E. Andreas, R.S. Bourchier, R. Shaw, R.L. Winston, C.B. Randall, and R.C. Reardon. 2020. Biology and Biological Control of Knotweeds. FHTET-2017-03, 2nd Ed. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Other Attack

Were other species attacked?: No
Other Species Attacked Notes:

Research Organizations

Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International, Egham, United Kingdom (CABI United Kingdom)

Notes




Based on: Winston, R.L., M. Schwarzländer, H.L. Hinz, M.D. Day, M.J.W. Cock and M.H. Julien, Eds. 2014. Biological Control of Weeds: A World Catalogue of Agents and Their Target Weeds, 5th edition. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Morgantown, West Virginia. FHTET-2014-04. 838 pp.

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